Coconut Oil’s History in Destroying Viruses, Including Coronaviruses

 Coconut oil and fresh coconut on white background image

Comments by Brian Shilhavy.Editor, Health Impact News

People residing in the Philippines, a nation of islands not extremely away the coast of China, keep in mind all too well the last time a lethal coronavirus epidemic broke out in China.

.When the SARS (extreme intense breathing syndrome) coronavirus broke out in China, #ppppp> It was 2003. It contaminated over 7000 individuals in China with over 600 taped deaths.

Even with its close distance to China and big Chinese population in the Philippine country of about 80 million individuals, just 14 cases of SARS was reported with 2 tape-recorded deaths.

Canada, numerous countless miles away, had much more cases and more deaths taped due to SARS infection from China than surrounding Philippine Islands.

One of the theories advanced at the time regarding why the Filipino individuals had so couple of cases, was the nation’s primary usage of cooking oil: Coconut Oil.

The Philippines is the world’s biggest manufacturer of coconut oil, with about 70% of the world’s coconut oil being exported from the nation.

The medium chain fats of coconut oil, and mostly lauric acid, have actually been understood to damage enveloped infections by scientists for several years.

Dr. Fabian Dayrit, Ph.D. and Dr. Mary Newport, M.D. have actually simply released a paper relating to coconut oil’s capacity to likewise fight the brand-new coronavirus presently contaminating individuals in China.

.The Potential of Coconut Oil and its Derivatives as Effective and Safe Antiviral Agents Against the Novel Coronavirus (nCoV-2019).

by Fabian M. Dayrit, Ph.D. and Mary T. Newport, M.D. Anteneo De Manila University

Read the research study of Professor Emeritus Dr. Fabian Antonio Dayrit (GS’ 67, HS’ 71, BS Chemistry ’75) and Dr. Mary Newport of Spring Hill Neonatolody, Inc. on the possible usage of coconut oil as a safe antiviral representative versus the unique coronavirus.

As we compose this, the World Health Organization has actually stated an international emergency situation over the unique coronavirus, nCoV-2019, that has actually spread out beyond China. There is still no treatment for nCoV-2019. nCoV-2019 has actually been revealed to be associated with SARS (Zhou et al., 2020), a coronavirus which triggered a break out in 2003.

Several scientists have actually been developing drugs to particularly target protease enzymes in coronavirus, however screening for these drugs is numerous months away. What if there is a treatment prospect versus the coronavirus that might currently be readily available and whose security is currently developed?

Lauric acid (C12) and monolaurin, its derivative, have actually been understood for several years to have substantial antiviral activity. Lauric acid is a medium-chain fat that makes up about 50% of coconut oil; monolaurin is a metabolite that is naturally produced by the body’s own enzymes upon consumption of coconut oil and is likewise offered in pure kind as a supplement.

Sodium lauryl sulfate, a typical surfactant that is made from lauric acid, has actually been revealed to have powerful antiviral homes. Lauric acid, monolaurin, and salt lauryl sulfate (which is likewise referred to as salt dodecyl sulfate) are utilized in a vast array of items for their antiviral homes.

.Systems of action.

Three systems have actually been proposed to discuss the antiviral activity of lauric acid and monolaurin: initially, they trigger disintegration of the infection envelope; 2nd, they can hinder late maturation phase in the infection replicative cycle; and 3rd, they can avoid the binding of viral proteins to the host cell membrane.

.Disintegration of the infection membrane. The antiviral activities of lauric acid and monolaurin were very first kept in mind by Sands and colleagues (1979) and later on by Hierholzer &&Kabara (1982 ). In specific, Hierholzer &&Kabara revealed that monolaurin had the ability to decrease infectivity of 14 human RNA and DNA covered infections in cell culture by>> 99.9%, which monolaurin acted by breaking down the infection envelope. Thormar and colleagues (1987) verified the capability of lauric acid and monolaurin to suspend infections by disintegration of the cell membrane. Salt lauryl sulfate has actually been revealed to be able to solubilize and denature the viral envelope (Piret 2000, 2002).Prevents infection maturation. The Junin infection (JUNV) is the causative representative of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. In a contrast amongst the saturated fatty acids from C10 to C18 versus JUNV infection, Bartolotta and colleagues (2001) revealed that lauric acid was the most active inhibitor. From mechanistic research studies, it was concluded that lauric acid hindered a late maturation phase in the replicative cycle of JUNV. From transmission electron microscopic lense images, JUNV is an enveloped infection including glycoproteins that are embedded in the lipid bilayer forming viral spikes (Grant et al., 2012); this resembles nCoV-2019.Avoids binding of viral proteins to the host cell membrane. Hornung and colleagues (1994) revealed that in the existence of lauric acid, the production of transmittable vesicular stomatitis infection was hindered in a reversible and dose-dependent way: after elimination of lauric acid, the antiviral result vanished. They observed that lauric acid did not affect viral membrane (M) protein synthesis, however avoided the binding of viral M proteins to the host cell membrane.

Although lauric acid represent much of the reported antiviral activity of coconut oil, capric acid (C10) and monocaprin have actually likewise revealed appealing activity versus other infections, such as HIV-1 (Kristmundsdóttir et al., 1999).

Capric acid represent about 7% of coconut oil. Hence, a minimum of 2 fats in coconut oil, and their monoglycerides, have antiviral residential or commercial properties. Hilarsson and colleagues (2007) checked virucidal activities of fats, monoglycerides and fatty alcohols versus breathing syncytial infection (RSV) and human parainfluenza infection type 2 (HPIV2) at various concentrations, times and pH levels.

They reported the most active substance evaluated was monocaprin (C10), which likewise revealed activity versus influenza An infection and substantial virucidal activities even at a concentration as low as 0.06-0.12%.

.Usage of coconut oil and C12 derivatives in people and animals.

Coconut oil and its derivatives have actually been revealed to be efficient and safe antiviral substances in both animals and people. Since of the anti-bacterial and antiviral defense that it offers to animals, coconut oil, along with lauric acid and monolaurin, is utilized in stock and family pets as veterinary feed supplements in chicken, swine and pets (Baltic et al., 2017).

Monolaurin has actually been revealed to efficiently secure chicken versus bird influenza infection (van der Sluis, 2015). Li and co- employees (2009) prepared a gel including monolaurin and discovered it to be extremely active versus duplicated high viral loads of Simean immunodeficiency infection in macaques and Kirtane and co- employees (2017) established a 35% gel of monolaurin for application in the female genital system to secure versus HIV.

Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) has actually been utilized at low concentrations to suspend infections in milk of stock (de Sousa et al., 2019). SLS is the active constituent in industrial decontaminating wipes and basic lab disinfectants, and is an emulsifying representative and penetration enhancer in pharmaceutical preparations.

Coconut oil itself has actually been revealed to have anti-HIV residential or commercial properties in little medical research studies. The very first medical trial utilizing coconut oil (45 mL everyday) and monolaurin (95% pureness, 800 mg everyday) versus HIV-AIDS was performed in the Philippines. This research study included 15 HIV clients, aged 22 to 38 years, 5 males and 10 women, for 6 months. There was just one casualty and 11 of the clients revealed greater CD4 and CD8 counts after 6 months (Dayrit, 2000).

In another research study, 40 HIV topics with CD4+ T lymphocyte counts less than 200 cells/microliter were divided into a virgin coconut oil (VCO) group (45 mL everyday) and control group (no VCO). After 6 weeks, the VCO group revealed considerably greater typical CD4+ T lymphocyte counts versus control (Widhiarta, 2016).

.Conclusion.

Several in vitro, animal, and human research studies support the capacity of coconut oil, lauric acid and its derivatives as safe and reliable representatives versus an infection like nCoV-2019. Mechanistic research studies on other infections reveal that a minimum of 3 systems might be running.

Given the significant clinical proof for the antiviral activity of coconut oil, lauric acid and its derivatives and their basic security, and the lack of a remedy for nCoV-2019, we prompt that medical research studies be performed amongst clients who have actually been contaminated with nCoV-2019 (see listed below). This treatment is essentially safe and economical, and the possible advantages are huge.

On the other hand, provided the security and broad schedule of virgin coconut oil (VCO), we advise that VCO be thought about as a basic prophylactic versus microbial and viral infection.

.A proposed scientific research study.

We can propose that a medical research study be carried out on clients contaminated with nCoV-2019 appropriately:

.Group 1: Control group, basic care.Group 2: basic care + VCO (45 mL, approx. 3 three tablespoons, everyday or greater,).Group 3: basic care + Monolaurin (95% pureness, 800 mg everyday). Monolaurin is acknowledged as GRAS by United States FDA.Group 4: basic care + Monocaprin (95% pureness, 800 mg day-to-day). Monocaprin is acknowledged as GRAS by United States FDA.Group 5: basic care + SLS (pharmaceutical grade, 100 mg/kg/day). SLS toxicity: most affordable NOAEL (duplicated dosage, rat): 100 mg/kg/day (hepatotoxicity) (Bondi et al., 2015).

Read the complete post at Anteneo.edu .

.Recommendations.

Baltić B, Starčević M, Đorđević J, Mrdović B, Marković R. Importance of medium chain fats in animal nutrition. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 2017; 85: 012048.

Bartolotta S, Garcí CC, Candurra NA, Damonte EB. Impact of fats on arenavirus duplication: inhibition of infection production by lauric acid. Archives of Virology, 2001; 146( 4 ): 777-790.

Bondi CAM, Marks JL, Wroblewski POUND, et al. Environmental and human Toxicity of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS): Evidence for Safe Use in Household Cleaning Products. Environmental Health Insights 2015:9 27– 32

Dayrit CS. Coconut Oil in Health and Disease: Its and Monolaurin’s Potential as Cure for FOR HIV/AIDS. XXXVII Cocotech Meeting. Chennai, India. July 25, 2000.

De Sousa ALM, Pinheiro RR, Araújo JF, et al. Salt dodecyl sulfate as a viral inactivator and future viewpoints in the control of little ruminant lentiviruses. Arquivos do Instituto Biológico, 2019; 86. Epub Nov 28, 2019.

Grant A, Seregin A, Huang C, Kolokoltsova O, Brasier A, Peters C, Paessler S. Junín Virus Pathogenesis and Virus Replication. Infections, 2012; 4: 2317-2339.

Hierholzer JC, Kabara JJ. In-vitro impacts of monolaurin substances on enveloped RNA and DNA infections. Journal of Food Safety, 1982; 4( 1 ): 1-12

Hilmarsson H, Traustason BS, Kristmundsdóttir T, Thormar H. Virucidal activities of medium- and long-chain fatty alcohols and lipids versus breathing syncytial infection and parainfluenza infection type 2: contrast at various pH levels. Archives of Virology 2007: 152( 12 ):2225 -36.

Hornung B, Amtmann E, Sauer G. Lauric acid hinders the maturation of vesicular stomatitis infection. Journal of General Virology, 1994; 75: 353-361.

Kirtane AR, Rothenberger MK, Frieberg A, et al. Assessment of vaginal drug levels and security of an in your area administered glycerol monolaurate cream in Rhesus macaques. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 2017; 106( 7 ):1821 -1827.

Kristmundsdóttir T, Arnadóttir SG, Bergsson G, Thormar H. Development and examination of microbicidal hydrogels consisting of monoglyceride as the active component. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 1999; 88( 10 ): 1011-1015.

Li Q, Estes JD, Schlievert PM, et al. Glycerol monolaurate avoids mucosal SIV transmission. Nature 2009; 458( 7241 ): 1034– 1038.

Piret J, Déseomeaux A, Bergeron MG, et al. Salt lauryl sulfate, a microbicide efficient versus nonenveloped and enveloped infections. Present Drug Targets 2002; 3( 1 ):17 -30.

Piret J, Lamontagne J, Bestman-Smith J, et al. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Dextran Sulfate as Microbicides versus Herpes Simplex and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2000; 110-119.

Sands JA, Landin P, Auperin D, Reinhardt A. Enveloped Virus Inactivation by Fatty Acid Derivatives. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1979; 15( 1 ): 27-31.

Thormar H, Isaacs CE, Brown HR, Barshatzky MR, Pessolano T. Inactivation of Enveloped Viruses and Killing of Cells by Fatty Acids and Monoglycerides. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1987; 31( 1 ): 27-31.

van der Sluis W. Potential antiviral homes of alpha-monolaurin. Poultry World. Downloaded from: https://www.poultryworld.net/Nutrition/Articles/2015/12/Potential-antiviral-properties-of-alpha-monolaurin- 2709142W.

Widhiarta KD. Virgin Coconut Oil for HIV– Positive People. Cable, 2016; 32 (1 ): 50-57.

Zhou P, Yang X-L, Wang X-G, et al. Discovery of an unique coronavirus related to the current pneumonia break out in 2 people and its possible bat origin. bioRxiv preprint initially published online Jan. 23, 2020; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.22.914952.

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